WHAT IS METHOD OF STATEMENT?


It is the documents submitted by contractor to client, covering the general work procedure of a particular job in safe manners as per required standard.

WHAT IS JSA AND ITS USE?


Job safety analysis is the step by step analysis of a job to determine the safe working procedures
it includes the following steps.

Watch the job being done
Break the job down into steps
described the hazards in each step of task
Identity the desired controls measures and
Implement these counter measures in the job executions.

WHAT IS WORK PERMIT?


Is a written document authorizing a person or a group to perform maintenance, inspections or construction work?

HOW MANY TYPE OF PERMITS ARE USED?


Hot work permit,
Cold work permit,
Confined space entry permit,
Excavation permit,
Lifting permit,
Night work permit,
Radiography permit,
Other permits as per job requirement.

What is Safety?


Safety is a state where the Risk has been Eliminated or Reduced to an Acceptable Level.
Control of Accidental Loss of Resources Human and Material

what is near-miss?


An undesirable event which has the potential to cause loss

WHAT IS CONFINED SPACE?


Any space having a limited means of access and egress, when subject to the hazards like deficiency of Oxygen, toxic or flammable gases or substances, dust etc.

WHAT IS THE OXYGEN LEVEL IN A CONFINED SPACE?


The Oxygen level in Confined space is 19.5% to 23.5%.

IN WHAT CIRCUMTANCES A CONFINED SPACE WORK PERMIT CAN BE ISSUED?

If properly ventilated, gas test reading are satisfactory, properly barricaded and warning signs are Posted, trained stand by man is present with log sheet, sufficient lightening and low voltage Electricity (24V-110V), proper means of communication, locked and tagged out if necessary, lifeline man retrieval System if necessary etc.

WHO IS CONFINED SPACE ATTENNDANT?

He is one who is aware of the confined space hazards and knows how to react if anything goes wrong, able to maintain confined space entry log sheet etc.

WHAT ARE THE HAZARDS IN A CONFINED SPACE?

Oxygen Deficiency or Enrichment, presence of toxic or flammable gases, chemical hazards fire hazards
fall of materials fall hazards electrocution dust sounds heat or cold caught in between moving
Equipment’s engulfment etc.

WHAT ARE THE DUTIES OF A CONFINED SPACE ATTENDANT?

He is responsible for the safety of entrants, should be present whenever people are working in confined space, maintain update entry log sheet, maintain continuous communication with entrants and monitor conditions in the confined space to ensure a safe working atmosphere, prevent unauthorized personnel, initiate alarm for help if in need evacuate the entrants if conditions are not satisfying or in case of any general evacuation initiated contact rescue personnel if necessary etc.

GIVE SOME EXAMPLE OF A CONFINED SPACE?

Pipes, Vessels, Tanks, boilers, and Tube areas Silos Trenches and excavation deeper then 4feet sludge Pits Duct works etc.

NAME ONE HAZARDOUS JOB IN A CONFINED SPACE?

Welding Grinding Chemical Use of gas cutting sets erection of materials

WHO IS COMPETENT PERSONS?

Is one who is properly trained and authorized to perform a specific work in a safe manner competent person one who is capable of identifying existing predictable hazards and who has authority to make prompt corrective actions.

WHAT IS ACCIDENT?
Accident is uncontrolled events that results in undesirable consequences to personnel injury, illness of the assets damage or loss or to the environment.
An Undesirable event which causes harm to personal Damage to property.

WHAT IS A NEARMISS?

A Potential hazards, which has not yet caused an accident or an occurrence that did not results in but have the potentials to results in undesirable consequences to personnel illness injury and or to the assets damage loss or to the neighboring community and environment.
An Undesirable event which has the potential to cause loss.

WHO MAKES AN ACCIDENT REPORT?

Concerned area supervisor or site safety representatives.

WHO MAKES AN ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION REPORT?

A team of frontline supervisor, HSE manager sub-contractor representatives if subcontractor personnel
are injured high officials depending upon the severity of accident.

WHAT IS THE USED OF ACCIDENT REPORT?

To find out the root cause of accident makes recommendations to prevent re-occurrence and evaluate the effectiveness of emergency response.

WHAT IS WASTE MANAGEMENT?

Waste management means safely disposing the by-product of a process or a work to the environment after the proper treatment if necessary so that no threat for living properties and environment exists.

WHAT IS MSDS?

Materials safety data sheets is the documents prepared by the manufacturer giving product name producer address emergency contact phone number information of ingredients possible hazards first aid measures precaution to be taken for storage and handling recommended PPE extinguisher physical and chemical properties etc.

WHAT IS RADIOGRAPHI?

It is use for welding X-rays.
(If the wind velocity is up the 32 km or 20 miles then work should stop.)

WHAT IS RADIOACTIVITY?

Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nucleus emits ALPHA particles BETA particles or GAMA rays or electromagnetic rays during this process.

WHAT IS THE UNIT FOR MEASURING THE RADIATIONS?

Micro sever or Mille Rem.

IN WHAT CONDITIONS A WORK PERMITS CAN BE ISSUED FOR RADIOGRAPHY?

The controlled area is calculated evacuated and barricaded with yellow black tapes warning signs a minimum of 4 no. and red or yellow flash lights.

WHAT ARE SAFETY MEASURES TO BE TAKEN WHILE DOING RADOIGRAPHY?

Ensure a competent person is surveying outside the barricaded areas with surveys meters. The crews are observing and following the safety precautions. The controlled areas is calculated evacuated and barricaded with yellow black warning signs a minimum of 4no.s and red or yellow flash lights.

WHAT IS THE CONTROLLED AREA?

Any area where the radiations dose is more than 0.75 MREM/h (7.5 Micro sever)

WHAT IS A GIEGER METER?

Is the instruments used to measure the radiations dose (Radiation Survey Meter)


WHO IS AN AUTHORIZED EXPOSE PERSON?

He is one who got formal training in the use of sealed source and X-RAY equipment used in industry radiography.

WHAT ARE THE REQUIRMENTS OF A MAN BASKET?

It should be designed and fabricated according to standards have party certificates two guide ropes damage free lifting gears the load bearing capacity should be written on man basket shackles with cotter pin only to be used.

HOW SLINGS ARE INSPECTED?

All slings must be inspected before every use and periodically it should be inspected thoroughly and shall be rejected if found were one third of the original outside the diameter of outside individual wires serves corrosion distortion linking crushing bird caging broken wires.

THE TYPES OF CRANES?

Mobile Crane
Crawler Crane
Tower Crane
Over Head Crane

THE PARTS OF CRANE?

Boom,Slings,Shackie,Flyingjib,Antitwoblock,Outerrigger,Mainhoist,Auxillaryhoist,Pulley,Webslings,LMI(Load Movement Indicator).

WHAT ARE THE REQUIRMENTS OF A CRANE LIFTING?

Crane positions on firm and level ground with wood pads and steel plates. Outriggers are fully extended tires are off the ground. Certified operator and rigger are available safe load indicator is working the check list filled by competent persons.

WHAT IS WORK RADIUS?

Is the maximum distance where a certain activities for lifting or rigging jobs in progress.

WHAT IS SWL?

Safe Working Load is the maximum load that can apply to the lifting tool, safely

WHAT IS LIFTING PLAN?

Is the documents prepare for planning a critical lift by calculating and considering all factors which is going to effect the lift and there by selecting the correct tools and cranes and ensure the safe lifting procedure to be followed for the particular lift, which is used for lifting and what the safe factor is, where the load is lifted, where it is fitted, size and SWL of each lifting tool used JSA and load-chart are attached with it.

WHAT IS TANDUM LIFT?

A lift in which two crane are used for Lifting is called Tandem Lifting.

What is excavation?

A man made cut, cavity, trench or depression formed by earth removal.

What is trench?

A narrow excavation, where the depth is greater than width

what is shoring?

A structure that supports the sides of an excavation and protects against cave-ins.

What is different between a flash back arrestor and a check valve?

A check valve allows flow in one direction only. This prevents oxygen reaching acetylene cylinder and acetylene reaching oxygen cylinder in the event of blockage in the torch or line or pressure variations.
But a flash back arrestor prevents reverse flow; stop the flow of flame from reaching the cylinder in the event of a flash back or the temperature exceeds a limit (220 degrees f.)

How many type of Fall Protection system?

(1) Guardrail system,
(2) Safety Net system.
(3)Personal Fall arrest system (BODY HARNESS)

what is the classis of fire and what type of fire extinguishers are used for them?



What is the responsibility of Fire Watch?

Fire watch is the person design to identify and eliminate fire hazards, alert and extinguish fire in case of any outbreak of fire and to protect the person and properties from a fire. He is the man to reach first in case of fire by keeping a close watch on such hazardous areas.

What is color coding system?

This system followed to inspect and insure the serviceability of tools, equipment’s periodically ( normally it is monthly ) like fire extinguishers, full body harness, lifting gears, electrical codes and power tools, etc. These things are inspected by competent person and are indicated by putting the color of particular month (this color is decided in advance and is being followed by all people at particular site). The items which are found defective or unserviceable will not be color coded and has to be removed from service.

Who can color code?

Competent person

what is the maximum distance between two adjacent accesses in a long excavation?

A ladder must be present within 25feet, of employees working in excavation.
In open excavation – At least every 30m on the perimeter, if less than 1.2m deep
– At every 7.5m on the perimeter, if more than 1.2m deep

When is an excavation considered as a confined space?

If depth is more than 1.2m

who can erect scaffolding?

Certified scaffold

who can inspect the components used for erecting a scaffold?

A competent and certified scaffolding supervisor

what is tag system?

A tag system is put on scaffolding, by a competent person, indicating the present condition whether it can be used and whether fall protection needed or not.
Red tag – Do not use (is being erected or dismantled)
Yellow tag – Can use with 100% fall protection (is incomplete or cannot be completed)
Green tag – Safe to use (scaffolding is complete)

who can place a scaffold tag?

Competent person (scaffolding supervisor)

what are the details in a scaffold tag?

Location, Maximum loading capacity (kN/m2 or psf), Date erected and date inspected with foreman’s name and signature.

In which condition a scaffold cannot be erected?

Extreme weather (strong wind, rain, ice), ground not stable, safe clearance (minimum 10 feet) can’t be maintained with live wire, certified workers and supervisor are not available, permit not available.

What is the minimum overlapping of two adjacent planks in a platform?

Not less than 12 inches

what is a guard rail system?

A barrier consisting of top rail and med rails, toe board and vertical up right erected to prevent men and materials falling from an elevated work area.

What is a toe board?

Barrier secured along the sides and ends of a platform to guard falling of materials, tools, and other objects.

What is the minimum height of a toe-board?

Minimum 4 inches

what is the height of the top-rail from the platform?

38 inches to 45 inches

what are the requirements in placing an access ladder on a scaffold?

Provide access when scaffold platforms are more than 2 feet above or below a point of access.
When using ladders, bottom rung must not be more than 24 inches high. Ladder to be at the correct angle (i.e. Feet out for every 4 feet in height) Ladders are to be tied at both sides not by the rungs. Make sure the ladder extends a safe distance (at least 90cm) above the landing stage. When the horizontal travel distance exceeds 15 meters provide at least two accesses. If the platform is longer, access shall be provided at every 30 meters. The ladder should be free from damage and should be color coded. All access ladders must be tagged.

In what circumstances fall protection system has to be used?

If the person could fall more than 1.8 meter then a fall protection system should be used.
Example- Any activity at an elevation more than 1.8 meter such as erection, dismantling or maintenance of scaffolding pipes, equipment’s.

What is the minimum width required for a walk-way?

Minimum width of a walk-way is 18 inches.

What materials can be placed on a scaffold platform?

All types of construction materials which are used for particular construction activity can be kept on scaffolding platform but before keeping the materials and tools required for the work on the platform, we must ensure load bearing capacity of that scaffolding platform. The platform shall not be overloaded and shall be fitted with object protection system like toe board nets etc.

What are the requirements for working on a moving scaffold?

Mobile scaffolding shall be plumb, level and square. It shall be moved only by manually pushing or pulling the base. No men, equipment, or materials shall be on the working platform or elsewhere on the scaffolding while it is in motion. Castors shall be locked at all times except during scaffold movement. The temporary foundation or truck set on uneven ground for scaffold movement shall be level and properly secured. The height of the working platform shall not exceed 4 times of the minimum base dimension, if it exceeds this limit outriggers must be installed. A complete guard rail system must be provided. The scaffolding shall be inspected and tagged before use by a competent person.

When should we inspect scaffold?

Scaffolding shall be inspected and tagged after completing erection. Also before each work period or where they are altered, adjusted to rain or heavy winds. Thereafter the scaffolding shall be examined at least once in every seven days.
What is the angle to fix the Ladder?

The angle of Ladder is 75deg or ¼.

What is the space between the two ladder Rungs?

The gape or space is 12inch or 30cm.

With what color a ladder can be painted?

Aluminum ladders and wooden ladders shall not be painted.

What is a life-line?
Life line is component that consists of a flexible line that connects to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically or that connects to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally and which serves
as a method to connect component of a personnel fall arrest system to the anchorage.

How can we calculate the safe anchorage of a life-line?

When life is used they shall be fastened to fixed safe points of anchorage capable of supporting 2300 kilos shall be independent, and shall be protected from sharp edges and abrasion. Safe anchorage points may include structural members (minimum 4 inches structural member or 4inces pipes) but do not include guard rails, vents, other small dia piping system, electrical conduit, outrigger beams or counter weights. It shall be made from 10mm dia wire ropes. Horizontal lifelines shall be installed at the highest feasible point, preferable above shoulder height. This life lines shall be maintained with unloaded sag at the center no longer than 30cm (12inches) for every 10meters of life line length between attachment points.

What is lock-out/tag-out system?

For servicing or maintenance of live equipment’s or pipe lines where the unexpected energizing or release of energy could cause of injury, lock and tag are place on the isolating device to avoid uncontrolled operation and give details of the lock-out schedule.

Abbreviation use for safety?

STARRT – Safety Task and Risk Reduction Talk
COSHH – Control of Substance Hazardous to Health
OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Administration
CFR – Court of Federal Regulation
OHSAS – Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series
ELCB – Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker
GFCI – Ground F