Alpha/numeric A combination of letters and/or numbers used for identification.
Anemometer Instrument (used on some cranes) for measuring wind speed.
Angle Indicator A device that shows the angle at which the crane boom is operating and the corresponding rated capacity.
Asset Owner Entity that owns lifting equipment. Either PDO or Contractor.
Automatic Safe Load Indicator (ASLI) or Rated Capacity Indicator A device that automatically provides, with a specified tolerance, warning the load is approaching rated capacity, another warning when capacity is exceeded.
Auxiliary Hoist A second (ary) lifting system usually fitted to cranes, operating from a separate winch drum from the main hoist rope. Usually used on cranes to lift light loads, relative to the crane’s capacity, faster than is possible on the main hoist system.
Blind Lift A lift where at any point in time during the lifting operation the crane operator cannot directly see the load.
Block A hook sheave and frame assembly attached to a rope used for raising and lowering loads.
Boom A steel lattice, or steel box section structure that forms a lifting mast.
Booming/Luffing The movement of a crane boom from one angle to another in the vertical plane.
Cantilever Beam Section of beam supported at one end only.
CAP Competent Authorised Person is a person who is appointed by the production co-ordinator or site-manager and who controls the lifting equipment at relevant location.
Centre of Gravity Point at which the total mass of a body may be regarded as being concentrated, or about which the parts of the body exactly balance each other.
Certificate of Test and or Examination A Test Certificate is issued by the third party certification lifting engineer on completion of a satisfactory survey. A new Test Certificate will require to be issued if the equipment is subject to repair or modification. Where a Test certificate states that it is also a report of thorough inspection/examination it must contain all of the information as required by LOLER 98, Schedule 1.
Colour Code A method of marking equipment (normally with paint or plastic cable ties) to give a visual indication of its certification/inspection status. This ‘coded’ colour is changed every six months.
Drawn-up Dimension The minimum distance between the suspension level and the bottom hook saddle (also known as closed-height).
Effective Span The distance between the centres of the adjacent supports, due allowance being made for the end fixing, continuous beams and cantilevers.
Effective Working Length (EWL) The distance between the extreme inside ends of the eyes in a straight sling.
Factor of Safety The ratio of the load that would cause failure of an item of lifting equipment to the load that is imposed upon it in service i.e. SWL (This is to allow for detrimental criteria such as wear and tear, dynamic loadings etc).
Fit-for-purpose Equipment free from defect and used only in the manner for which it was designed.
Fixed Lifting Equipment Lifting equipment permanently installed (e.g. pedestal cranes, gantry cranes, swing jib cranes, beams, beam trolleys, powered hoists, pad eyes etc).
Functional Testing Operation of each motion of the lifting equipment without a load applied in order to determine whether the equipment performs as the manufacturer intended.
Gantry Elevated structure supporting the track of an overhead travelling trolley or crane.
Gross Capacity (Cranes) The gross capacity is the capacity shown in the crane’s load or capacity charts.
Gross Weight The maximum allowable weight of a loaded container, at the design sling angle, i.e. the Tare weight (weight of empty container) plus the Pay Load (maximum weight of cargo, that can be carried by the container).
Hand Operated Chain Block A block reeved with a load chain and operated by a hand chain so as to give a mechanical advantage.
Headroom The maximum vertical distance between the item to be lifted and the point of suspension of the hoisting machine. E.g. between the lifting padeyes and the underside of runway beam.
Hook Load The total weight suspended from the hook.
Inertia Forces The forces produced by a change of velocity.
Inspection A visual inspection by a lifting engineer or lifting tackle inspector carried out carefully and critically and supplemented by other means – such as measurement and where necessary non-destructive testing in order to arrive at a reliable conclusion as to the condition and safety of the equipment. If necessary for the purpose, parts of the appliance shall be dismantled.
  Lift Category   A categorization of lifting operations (i.e. Routine Lifts and Non-Routine Lifts) reflecting the risk of the lifting operation and the required level of control.
  Lift Plan   The Lift Plan details of how the lifting operations should be undertaken, the Lifting Equipment and Lifting Accessories to be used, how the equipment and Lifting Accessories shall be rigged up and the control measures in place to manage the risks.
  Lifted Equipment Any device which is used to suspend the load, including containers, tanks, skips, skids, drum rackets, pipe racks, frames, gas cylinder racks, pallets, flexible industrial bulk containers (‘big bags’), tree cages, cargo nets, and cargo baskets.
  Lifting Appliances Any mechanical device capable of raising or lowering a load, eg cranes, fork lift trucks, powered hoists, manual hoists, lever hoists, beam trolleys, beam clamps, sheave blocks, winches, runway beams, mono-rail hoist, etc.
  Lifting Tackle or Lifting Accessory or Lifting Gear Any item whatsoever, which is used or designed to be used directly or indirectly to connect a load to a lifting appliance, a crane or chain block etc, and which does not form part of the load, but which is not itself able to lift or lower a load, e.g. slings, shackles, eyebolts, etc.
  Lifting Equipment Lifting Equipment, is a generic term and comprises Lifting Appliances (equipment performing the lifting), Lifting Accessories (devices which connect the load to the lifting appliance), and Lifted Equipment.
  Lifting Operation A task concerned with the lifting and lowering of a load. It includes the selection attachment and use of suitable lifting equipment.
  Lift Planner A person who has appropriate practical and theoretical knowledge and experience of the lifting operations to enable him to prepare a full working lift plan.
  Lifting Point Generic term for the certified point(s) or attachment(s) on an item of plant, by which it can be lifted safely. The term also applies to points or attachments fixed to structural members and from which a load can be suspended. For example lifting lugs, lifting eyes, trunnions, fabricated lifting plates, padeyes and jacking points.
  Lifting Set / Sling Set Lifting slings and shackles used to connect a container to the lifting equipment.
  Live Loads Any load, except wind load, that gives rise to a variation of stress into a crane. Such variation may be due to any change of position or magnitude of an externally applied load, or to the movement of the crane structure itself.
  Load Line A wire rope suspending a hook.
  Loose Lifting Equipment   Lifting Equipment that is portable enough so that it can easily be moved or carried by a person(s) to/from a store / location to a worksite to conduct a lifting operation. This may include Lifting Appliances (e.g. manual lever hoists, chain falls, beam clamps etc) and Lifting Accessories (e.g. slings, shackles etc.)
  Luffing See Booming.
  Measured Deflections The deflections measured in such a manner that they relate to precisely the same conditions as those covering the calculated deflection.
  Mechanical Advantage The ratio between the load raised and the effort required to raise it.
  Mobile Lifting Equipment Lifting equipment that can be transported from one installation to another (e.g. mobile cranes, forklift trucks etc). This equipment is likely to be owned and used by the Contractor.
  Mode Factor A factor, which takes into account, the geometry of the sling assembly, the number of parts and other constants as specified in the appropriate British Standard.
  NDT Non-Destructive Testing
  (NDT)-Inspector The term inspector is used to describe any person carrying out NDT inspection on lifting equipment. In all cases, the inspector shall have experience and training suitable to the NDT inspection being performed. (min. as per ASNT Tc-1a level 2 or equivalent)
  Net Capacity (Cranes) The net capacity is determined by deducting the crane capacity deductions from the crane’s gross capacity. The deductions differ from manufacturer to manufacturer as well as between crane types. Deductions normally are: – Weight of main hook block Weight of slings and rigging Weight of auxiliary hook block Weight of all wire rope from boom tip and the block Weight of any stowed jib
  Non-routine Lift A lifting task that is of greater complexity than a routine lift, such that it requires specialist resources, guidance, and special procedures written to enable its safe completion. These lifts are normally subdivided into simple, complicated and complex lifts.
  Operating Level The level on which the operator stands.
  Overload Testing (Static) Operation of the lifting equipment with a load exceeding the rated load but without operating the full range of motions of the equipment in order to determine whether the equipment is stable, structurally sound and fit for the use for which it was designed.
  Overload Testing (Dynamic) Operation of the lifting equipment with a load that exceeds the rated load applied in order to determine whether the equipment is stable, structurally sound and fit for the use for which it was designed.
  Pay Load The weight of a load within a container.
  Permanently Attached Slings Sets Permanently Attached Slings Sets are used only for transportation of containers. They must not be used for general lifting duties. These slings are colour coded Purple.
  Permissible Working Stress The stress numerically equal to the basic stress, multiplied by the relevant duty factor corresponding to the load.
  Performance Testing Operation of each motion of the lifting equipment with the rated load applied in order to determine whether the equipment performs to the manufacturer’s specification.
  Person in charge of the lift (PIC) Is the person, appointed by the production co-ordinator or site manager, who co-ordinates and controls all aspects of lifting operations on site.
  Personnel Platform/Carriers   A Personnel Platform / Carrier is designed and intended to give access to a work place at height for personnel and their tools and equipment to carry out minor work or inspections at a limited time. The platform is not designed for the actual transfer of personnel or to be used as a hoisting or lifting tool.
  Plant Generic term covering, machines, sub-assemblies and structures.
  Portable Lifting Equipment Lifting equipment, which can be transported from one part of a  worksite to another or between worksites. This category of equipment is usually supplied to a worksite for a period of six months whereupon it is returned, for inspection and replaced with identical items of equipment (chain blocks, pull lever hoists, beam clamps, Tirfor, etc)
  Pre-use Inspection A visual check and, if necessary, a function check of the Lifting Equipment by a competent person before each use. In determining the suitability and scope of the inspection, reference should be made to information such as manufacturer’s instructions and relevant industry standards.
  Proof Load Test A test load (mass or force) applied to an item of lifting equipment/accessory to prove its integrity. Proof load tests can be carried out to various standards, but results must be recorded on a Test Certificate.
  Pulley (or Sheave) A grooved wheel over which a rope passes. Pulleys are usually shaft mounted and free to rotate in response to movement of the rope.
  Radius (Slewing Cranes) Horizontal distance between the point at which the centre of rotation meets the ground and the vertical centreline passing through the load lifting attachment
  Radius (Non-Slewing Cranes) Horizontal distance from the centreline through the load lifting attachment to the nearest axle or track measured at ground level.
  Radius Indicator A device that shows the radius at which the crane is operating and the corresponding rated capacity.
  Range of Lift The vertical distance that the bottom hook travels between the extended and highest positions.
  Rated Capacity Limiter A device that automatically cuts, with a specified tolerance, motions that could increase risks, if the rated capacity is exceeded.
  Rated Capacity Indicator See ASLI
  Reeving Configuration of the hoisting rope in a winching system.
  Report of Inspection A report of inspection is the report issued by the third party certification lifting engineer on completion of an unsatisfactory survey. The report of inspection shall contain all of the information as required by LOLER 98, Schedule 1.
  Rigging Store An ISO container, or similar, modified specifically to suit the storage of lifting equipment.
  Routine Lifts These are lifts involving loads of known or evaluated weight, shape and centre of gravity. The Routine Lift will be performed in normal environmental conditions (e.g. not in adverse weather) using standard rigging arrangements. Examples of Routine Lifts are loading/off-loading supply vessels and vehicles, moving grocery boxes, lifting re-bar, and delivering concrete by skip. They undertaken on a day-to-day basis that are fully addressed by existing ‘generic’ training and competence procedures.
  Runway Beam/Monorail An overhead structural beam certified to a specific SWL and used for the attachment of lifting equipment, such as trolleys, beam clamps, etc.
  Safe Working Load (SWL) or Rated Capacity The maximum load (as determined by a competent person) which an item of Lifting Equipment may raise, lower or suspend under particular service conditions, e.g. the SWL can be lower than, but can never exceed, the WLL. Normally SWL = WLL unless the Lifting Equipment has been de-rated.
  Serving / Sizing or Whipping The binding, in wire or twine, at the end of a rope to prevent the strands from opening or fraying.
  Slinger The person responsible for attaching and detaching the load to and from the crane and for correct selection and use of lifting tackle.
  Sling Angle The angle the sling makes with the horizontal. Maximum allowed is 90º included angle or 45º to the vertical.
  Sling Assembly A sling in the form in which it is actually used.
  Soft Eye An unsupported loop formed at the end of a rope to facilitate connection of a lifting device.
  Snatch Block A single pulley with a hinged side plate to allow easy access to the pulley wheel for rope attachment.
Stinger A single wire rope sling with an eye on one end and a hook on the other usually suspended from the crane’s hook.
Structural Integrity The reliability of the load bearing structure.
Statement of Conformity A statement issued by the manufacturer confirming that any necessary manufacturing tests have been carried out, and confirming the SWL. The statement has the same status as a test certificate and must be retained for inspection when required.
Tag Line A length of rope attached to the load and used to guide the load, being lifted, into the desired position
Tank Container A container that consists of the tank or tanks, and the load bearing structure.
Tare The weight of the container without cargo. Tare weight shall include all fixtures normally fixed to the container in service.
Technical Authority The technical authority is responsible for assuring the technical integrity of an operational facility, in the context of this document this covers approval of this document, and deviations from this document.
Ton (T) For the purposes of the lifting equipment management documents, one long ton shall be interpreted as 2240 pounds, which is 1016 kilograms.
Ton (short) or US Ton (T) For the purposes of the lifting equipment management documents, one short ton shall be interpreted as 2000 pounds, which is 907.18 kilograms.
Ton (long) (T) For the purposes of the lifting equipment management documents, one long ton shall be interpreted as 2240 pounds, which is 1016 kilograms.
Tonne / metric tonne (t) For the purposes of the lifting equipment management documents, one tonne shall be interpreted as 1000 kilograms.
Test Certificate of Proof Load A Test Certificate of Proof Load is the certificate of a proof load test, which would normally be carried out at the completion of manufacture and be supplied with the equipment. A new Test Certificate of proof load will require to be issued if the equipment is subject to repair or modification of any load bearing structure, or if the independent lifting engineer deems it is necessary to ensure continuing integrity.
Thimble Eye A loop formed at the end of a rope around a supporting metal eye, i.e. the thimble.
Thorough Inspection A visual Inspection by a lifting engineer or lifting tackle inspector, carried out carefully and critically, and supplemented by other means, such as measurement and where necessary non-destructive testing, in order to arrive at a reliable conclusion as to the condition and safety of the equipment. If necessary for the inspection, part of the equipment shall be dismantled.
Thorough Inspection of Lifting Equipment An inspection and certification of lifting equipment carried out by a lifting engineer from an third party certification company in accordance with PDO’s procedures and any subsequent amendments thereto. The inspection carried out by the lifting engineer shall carefully and critically, supplemented by other means, such as measurement and where necessary non-destructive testing, in order to arrive at a reliable conclusion as to the condition and safety of the equipment. If necessary for the inspection, part of the equipment shall be dismantled. The lifting engineer shall be independent of the supplier of Lifting Equipment.
Toolbox Talk   Toolbox Talk, also known as ‘Toolbox Meeting’ is required to be carried out for all work with significant safety exposure. The Toolbox Talk must be done at the work site. It is the final check in the hazard assessment process and the start of the implementation of the work. The Toolbox Talk shall cover the work plan, the hazards, the controls, roles & responsibilities, and any recovery measures to be taken if the controls are not completely effective.
Uniform Load Method A method of rating multi-legged slings for use at any included angle between the sling legs of up to 90° and 120°. The preferred method for rating general-purpose slings is in accordance with ISO 7531.
Velocity Ratio The ratio between the velocities of a chain block hand chain and the load. It is equivalent to the number of metres of hand chain overhauled to raise the load a distance of one metre.
Wind Load The forces produced by the velocity of the wind, which is assumed to act horizontally.
Webbing A part of a flat lifting sling, comprising a woven narrow fabric, generally of a coarse weave and multiple plies, the prime function of which is load bearing.
Whipping See Serving.
Working Load Limit (WLL)   The maximum load, determined by the manufacturer, which an item of Lifting Equipment is designed to raise, lower or suspend. Some standards and documents refer to WLL as the ‘maximum SWL’.